Isabella Abbonizio, PhD in Musicology, Department of Music History, Science and Techniques - University of Rome, Italy, has put together this index - working fast and on the fly - of instruments common to the music of many cultures and countries with large Islamic populations. Some accent marks have been dropped to enable us to get this mounted easily in html, but ARC has created a database of over 3500 musical instruments worldwide, and we will be publishing this as a searchable online database, with all references. We welcome any help on making this index better and more complete.


Abangarang

Sudanese lyre particular of Berta people living in the most southern part of the Blue Nile Province. Membranophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 14, 2011).


Algaita

African Oboe. In Niger is usually played in ensemble with the Kakaki. Aerophone. Ref. Roger Blench. "Nigeria" In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed April 7, 2011).


Basan-kob or Basamkub

Sudanese lyre with five strings particular of the Hadendowa people from the eastern area of the region, considered the most important musical instrument of their tradition. Cordophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 15, 2011) / E. Emsheimer and A. Schneider: "Field Work among the Hadendowa of the Sudan', 'Anuario musical', xxxix/xl (1986), 173-88.


Bal

Sudanese "vertical stopped bamboo flute" without finger-holes particular of Berta people living in the southern part of the Blue Nile Province. Traditionally used in ensemble with naggaro drum for the bal naggaro music. Membranophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 29, 2011).


Bamba

Membranophone. See umva.


Benebene or Beriberi

Cordophone. See fedefede.


Bul

1. Sudanese two-sided drum of long conical shape played during traditional Shilluk old Colo religion festival dances. 2. Sudanese small cylindrical or conical drum. Membranophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 29, 2011).


Bun or Buun

Somali horn made out of shell. Aerophone. Ref. John William Johnson. "Somalia." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 14, 2011).


Cifte

Turkish double reedpipe made by two pipes played simultaneously by the same person. Aerophone. Ref. Racy, Ali Jihad ?A Dialectical Perspective on Musical Instruments: the East-Mediterranean Mijwiz?, _Ethnomusicology_, Vol. 38, No. 1 ( 1994), pp. 37-57


Daluka

Sudanese "single-headed clay drum" particular of Nubian people. Played by women, it is the instrument used by the principal singer during traditional spirit possession ceremonies called z?r. Sometimes the dal?ka is replaced by a tin. The "monotonous hammering of percussion rhythm, sometimes intensified by increasing tempo, and the ostinato type of singing are the musical tools for inducing possessing trance". Membranophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 14, 2011).


Dayereh or daff

Middle Eastern frame drum of different size. In Iran is performed in "varied social situations, from the Sufi zekr to performances of street entertainers". It helds a central role in the classical and popular idioms of Azerbaijan, where "Azeri players display a high level of mastery". Membranophone. Ref. Bo Lawergren, et al. "Iran" In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online (accessed April 7, 2011)


Debedha or Debdeba or Dabdaba

Libian large single-headed drum of goblet shape with wooden case. The sheepskin head has a central cap placed on it to weigh it. Considered by Libyan musicians of "finest sound of all the local drums". Also called dardaba. Membranophone. Ref. Brandily, Monique. "Libya." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 11, 2011). / Marcuse, Sybil: Musical instruments: a comprehensive dictionary (New York, 1964).


Dotar

Iranian long-necked two-strings lute common in Central Asia, Middle East and also North East of China in Xinjiang. Tuned in fourth or fifth intervals it has steel strings. In Iran it is played mainly in the north and the east of Khorasan as well as among the Turkmen of Gorgan and Gonbad varing its dimensions and the number of ligatures. Chordophone. Ref. file:///iranian_music_instruments.php.html


Durbaan

Somali drum. Membranophone Ref. John William Johnson. "Somalia." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 14, 2011).


Fanta

Ethiopian panpipes particular to the Konso and other peoples of South Ethiopia. Aerophone. Ref. Shelemay, Kay Kaufman and Kimberlin, Cynthia Tse "Ethiopia" in Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 11, 2011).


Fedefede

Sudanese small size five strings lyre particular of Tumtum Nuba tribe, played with a plectrum. Used "by young men for musical entertainment and song accompaniment". The same intrument has different names among other ethnic groups of the Nuba mountains, such as benebene or beriberi (Masakin or Ngile) and kazandik (Miri). Cordophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 16, 2011). The generally small-sized instrument is played with the plectrum technique used in other parts of the Sudan.


Gangan

Sudanese cylindrical drum used in a small instrumental ensemble called kolokua, played at harvesting and circumcision festivities. The gangan name "indicates relations with Chad and northern Nigeria". Membranophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 16, 2011).


Gees or goodir

Somali antelope horn particular of the Kudu. Aerophone. Ref. John William Johnson. "Somalia." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 14, 2011).


Goge

Nigerian horsehair fiddle with a table of lizard skin. Of North African origin, similar instruments are used in both Ethiopia and Central Asia. Considered "one of the most prestigious instruments in the north" of Nigeria. "Principally played in Islamic societies to accompany praise-singing and ecstatic cults such as the Hausa bori". A Hausa proverb, _gg kan bidi_a ke nan_ (the goge is the source of heresy), associates the goge with worldly and deviant beliefs. Membranophone. Ref. Roger Blench. "Nigeria" In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed April 7, 2011).


Gugu

Sudanese slit-drum particular of the Azande people from the south of Sudan. Idiophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 16, 2011).


Imzad

Libyan fiddle monochord with hemispherical resonator made of a big gourd covered with a henne decorated skin. Particular to the Tubu and Tuareg of Libya, imzad is always played by women. Also called inzad or amzad. Inzad, amzad: Other Libyan imzad names Cordophone. Ref. Brandily, Monique. "Libya." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 11, 2011).


Iran

Iranian long-necked two-strings lute common in Central Asia, Middle East and also North East of China in Xinjiang. Tuned in fourth or fifth intervals it has steel strings. In Iran it is played mainly in the north and the east of Khorasan as well as among the Turkmen of Gorgan and Gonbad varing its dimensions and the number of ligatures. Chordophone. Ref. file:///iranian_music_instruments.php.html


Jabbu

Somali drum. Membranophone. Ref. John William Johnson. "Somalia." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 14, 2011).


Kakaki

Nigerian long trumpet traditionally made of brass or bronze. Played in pairs or in sets of up to six, "used to imitate speech". Owning a kakaki set is symbol of authority and power. Usually played together with the algaita (oboe). Aerophone Ref. Roger Blench. "Nigeria" In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed April 7, 2011).


Kalanguu

Nigerian double-headed drum hourglass shaped, helded under the arm, beaten with a curved stick. The pitch of the drum-head is altered during performance by squeezing the laces. Also called _talking drum_, is used by "praisesingers to imitate speech-tones". Played by Hausa, Yoruba and many other Islamic peoples. Membranophone. Ref. Roger Blench. "Nigeria" In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed April 7, 2011).


Kam"ncheh

Iranian four strings spike fiddle with round and deep soundbox. The surface is skin-covered. Cordophone. Ref. Bo Lawergren, et al. "Iran" In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online (accessed April 7, 2011)


Kazandik

Cordophone. See fedefede.


Keleli

African cordophone with a hemispherical resonator made of gourd, wood or metal, covered with skin. Its two strings are directly attached to the neck; sometimes a third short string is added, "tuned an octave above the lower string". The keleli can be also turned in a fiddle instrument "simply by replacing the gut strings of the lute with a hank of horsehair "string' wich is played with a bow". It is played by Tubu of Libya. Cordophone. Ref. Brandily, Monique. "Libya." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 11, 2011).


Kidi

1. North and Central African double-headed drum played by the Blacksmith musicians, a special caste among the Tubu of Libya, while singing their songs. 2. West African single-headed barrel shaped vertical drum of Ewe of Ghana played with two sticks. 3. Membranophone. Ref. Brandily, Monique. "Libya." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online (accessed March 11, 2011) / Marcuse, Sybil: Musical instruments: a comprehensive dictionary (New York, 1964) / Brandily, Monique. "Chad." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online (accessed March 11, 2011).


Kiiki

One-string bowed fiddle used by Teda people from the north-west of Chad, played only by men. Caracterized by an hemispherical resonator made of gourd, wood or an enamel bowl with a soundboard of camel skin fixed by lacing, similar to the keleli. The single horsehair string is "attached to the neck by leather straps". The bow is "strongly arched" and made of wood and horsehair. Cordophone. Ref. Brandily, Monique "Chad" In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 30, 2011)


Kisir

Sudanese lyre particular of Nubian people. Cordophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 14, 2011).


Kola

Sudanese earthen pot drum used by Miri people of the Nuba Mountains. As cerimonial drum, is traditionaly "played at the rain-making kola-festival". Membranophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 14, 2011) / G. Baumann: National Integration and Local Identity: the Miri of the Nuba Mountains in the Sudan (Oxford, 1987).


Kolokua

Sudanese small instrumental ensemble consisting of "two drums, an end-blown flute and two side-blown antelope horns", played by Fur people. "Some names of the instruments, such as gangan for the cylindrical drum and tumble for the bowl-shaped drum, indicate relations with Chad and northern Nigeria". Played during harvesting and circumcision festivities occasions. Membranophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 16, 2011).


Kondi

Sudanese lamellophone played by Azande people from the south of Sudan. Lamellophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 30, 2011).


Kpánìngbá or Kpaningbo or Kpaningba;

Sudanese log xylophone usually with 12-14 keys with an approximately anhemitonic pentatonic tuning. Played by Azande people from Sudan. Idiophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 30, 2011).


Krar or kraar

African five or six strings lyre with a bowl-shaped sound box. Played both strummed with a leather plectrum, and more often, plucked, the strings are of gut or metal. Resonator is covered with skin and supports two wooden arms, that in turn support a crossbar to which strings are attached via tuning rings. It is common in Ethiopia and Eritrea. Always tuned in one of the four Ethiopian pentatonic scale (tizita, anchi-hoye, ambasel and bati), is originally played by male professional musicians. Also known as Yesey Tan Mesaria, (the Devil's instrument), kidrar, and in Shoa Provence, a kirar. The association is probably due to its function as an accompainment of songs praising love and beauty. Nowadays it is also is used in ensembles. The azmari (Ethiopian troubadores) call it krar (kraar), with 6 strings. Tukul Band update azmari traditional music and have developed a lead and bass electric krar. Also called messenko in Eritrea and timbo by the Galla. Largely a secular instrument. Cordophone. Messenko: Eritrean name for krar / Timbo: Galla people's name for the Ethiopian krar. Ref. Shelemay, Kay Kaufman Ethiopia, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. S. Sadie and J. Tyrrell (London: Macmillan, 2001), viii, pp. 355-356 / C. T. Kimberlin: Masinqo and the Nature of Qeat (PhD diss., UCLA, 1976) / I. Abbonizio: Musica e colonialismo nell'Italia fascista (PhD diss., University of Rome "Tor Vergata', 2010).


Kundi

Sudanese harp anthropomorphically shaped with an anhemitonic pentatonic tuning. Played by Azande people from Sudan. Cordophone. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 30, 2011).


Kurbi or Al-bakurbo

Sudanese harp with five strings particular of the Bagg?ra people, played by a singer to accompany a typical "praise or satirical songs or songs of censure called gardagi". A one string fiddle, the umkiki may be played instead of kurbi. Cordophone. Ref. A. Al-Daw, A.-A. Mohammed and A.-S.H. Ibrahim: Traditional Musical Instruments in Sudan (Khartoum, 1985) (Arabic and Eng.) / Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 15, 2011).


Kwelli

Percussion of ovoid body particular of Teda people from the north-west of Chad, played by adult male. Often paired with a larger percussion, the nangara, struck with straight sticks. Membranophone. Ref. Brandily, Monique "Chad" In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 30, 2011)


Lela ma sorek

Sudanese ensemble of slim tubular gourd trumpets, from five to twelve, played by adult men during the traditional dance called Sorek, performed during Nuba mountains harvest festivals (between October and December of every years). The name means "children of the gourd'. Each trumpet is tuned to a different pitch and the ensemble play by using "the hocket technique: each player contributes one pitch or one short pattern of a continuous musical phrase which results from the well-timed and most subtle interlocking of single phrases". Traditionally is performed on the Tazu ma sorek songs, "the most popular songs of of married men, with a content considered bawdy or often obscene": for this reason "their performance, as well as ideally knowledge of their words, are reserved for males in informal company". Aerophone. Ref. G. Baumann: National Integration and Local Identity: the Miri of the Nuba Mountains in the Sudan (Oxford, 1987) / Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 15, 2011).


Leleng

Sudanese small kettledrums usually in couple of two, played during Shilluk people traditional ceremonies. Membranophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 29, 2011).


Leng

Sudanese small drum particular of Shilluk people played during war dances "where a dancing man faces a woman and forms the horns of a bull with his arms". Membranophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 28, 2011).


Loor

Sudanese large drum particular of Shilluk people played during war dances "where a dancing man faces a woman and forms the horns of a bull with his arms". Membranophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 28, 2011).


Magruna

Libyan double clarinet with two melodic pipes fixed together in parallel, made of reed or brass. Each pipe has five finger-holes stopped with fingers at the same time. Players use a circular breathing technique that enable them to play for a long time with a flowing sound. The bottom of each pipe has a horn-shaped bell. This last feature distinguish the magruna from the Egyptian double clarined; the Egyptian instrument also has a double pipe without holes, acting like a drone. Aerophone. Ref. Brandily, Monique. "Libya." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 11, 2011).


Malkad

Somali flute. Aerophone. Ref. John William Johnson. "Somalia." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 14, 2011).


Mandul

Algerian "large, fretted mandolin used originally for teaching purposes only". Cordophone. Ref. Tony Langlois. "Algeria." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online (accessed March 14, 2011).


Mandjindji

Sudanese large trumpet made of wood, usually "anthropomorphically shaped with a carved head on its top". Traditionally used in couple by Bongo people of Sudan to accompany dances rithmically sustained by three drums. Aerophone. Ref. Artur Simon "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 28, 2011). / W. and A. Kronenberg: Die Bongo (Wiesbaden, 1981)


Matali

see Tar (1)


Messenquo

Abyssinian bowed fiddle with one horsehair string and a diamond-shaped sound box covered with goatskin. It is used in Ethiopia and Eritrea. Messenqo is originally played by male professional musicians, storytellers (ministrels or azmari) who sing and accompany themselves to celebrate a patrons, whether in a marriage, a festival or nowadays on the radio or in hurban hotels. Also called cherawata in Eritrea. Cordophone. Cherawata: Eritrean name for Ethiopian messenqo. Ref. Shelemay, Kay Kaufman. "Ethiopia", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. S. Sadie and J. Tyrrell (London: Macmillan, 2001), viii, pp. 355-356 / C.M. Kimberlin: Masinqo and the Nature of Qeñat (PhD diss., UCLA, 1976) / I. Abbonizio: Musica e colonialismo nell'Italia fascista (PhD diss., University of Rome"Tor Vergata', 2010


Mitbaq, mitbadj

Iraqanian double reedpipe made by two pipes played simultaneously by the same person. Aerophone. Ref. Racy, Ali Jihad "A Dialectical Perspective on Musical Instruments: the East-Mediterranean Mijwiz", _Ethnomusicology_, Vol. 38, No. 1 ( 1994), pp. 37-57


Mijwiz

Lebanese double reedpipe made by two parallel pipes played simultaneously by the same person using the _circular breathing_ technique. "The performer of the mijwiz possesses a certain mystique partly because of his extraordinary and rather intriguing ability to circular breathe". Called also qasab in some villages in Lebanon, "which literally means reed". Played solo or in ensemble with percussions. Aerophone. Ref. Racy, Ali Jihad "A Dialectical Perspective on Musical Instruments: the East-Mediterranean Mijwiz", _Ethnomusicology_, Vol. 38, No. 1 ( 1994), pp. 37-57


Mirwas

Middle Eastern cylindrical, double-headed drum of small size. Membranophone. Ref. Lisa A. Urkevich "Saudi Arabia" In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online (accessed April 5, 2011).


Mizmar

Arabian aerophone. The terms refers to various kind of wind intruments with one or two reeds. In Saudi Arabia it features a "two single-reed bamboo pipes tied together and played simultaneously". The pipe lengths vary slightly, thus producing harmonic beats when played. The mizm"r features in the dance that bears its name. In Yemen the mizmar is "fixed round the player's mouth by a muzzle", reminding the Phrigian or Greek ancient models of aulos. Ref. Lisa A. Urkevich "Saudi Arabia" In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online (accessed April 5, 2011). / Christian Poch "Mizmar" In The New Grove of Musical Instruments (1984).


Naggaro

Sudanese percussion played by Berta people in the Southern Blue Nile Province. Traditionally used in ensemble with bal flutes for the bal naggaro music. Membranophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 26, 2011).


Nangara

Large percussion of ovoid body of 50 cm of height. Particular of Teda people from the north-west of Chad. The skin's diameter is between 30 and 42 cm and is attached by lacing to the wooden body. Often paired with a smaller percussion, the kwelli, "they are struck with straight sticks, by two drummers if only the nangara is used, and by three if both instruments are played as a pair". Membranophone. Ref. Brandily, Monique "Chad" In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 30, 2011)


Naqqara or Nahas

Sudanese large kettledrum in the past used by the chiefs of the Beja (Bedawi) group (Ababda, Bisharin, Amarar, Hadendowa and Beni-Amer) of the eastern area of the region. A cerimonial instrument and "symbol of power" it was "played only at important occasions such as the enthronement or death of a chief, or during periods of war". Membranophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 15, 2011).


Nasar

Somali drum. Membranophone Ref. John William Johnson. "Somalia." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 14, 2011).


Negarit or Nagarit

East African single-headed kettledrum of hemispherical section with a wood, silver or gold case. In many case the animal skin covers the whole instrument. The Negarit is usually played with one or two wooden sticks, never with the hands. Used in cerimonial political contexts, it is considered "one of the distinctive emblems of authority". In fact, the Emperor's Negarit was made of gold, the senior official's of silver and the wood negarit would be for other government officials. Membranophone. Ref. Powne, Michael Ethiopian Music, an Introduction: a Survey of Ecclesiastical and Secular Ethiopian Music and Instruments (London, 1968) / Marcuse, Sybil: Musical instruments: a comprehensive dictionary (New York, 1964).


Ney-e

Middle Eastern rim-blown flute, "obliquely held, with six finger-holes and one thumb-hole". Used in the classical iranian tradition. Aerophone. Ref. Bo Lawergren, et al. "Iran" In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online (accessed April 7, 2011)


Nihas

Sudanese copper kettledrums particular of the ruling families of the Bagg?ra people, "symbol of power and tribal sovereignty are played at exceptional occasions only". Membranophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 15, 2011).


Qitra

Algerian lute used in esemble, "now only used in Tlemcen". Cordophone. Ref. Tony Langlois. "Algeria" In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online (accessed March 14, 2011).


Rabab, rababa, rabob, rbabrebab, ribab robab, rubab, rubob, etc.

Terms used to indicate various cordophones, luthes, fiddle, lyre in different countries, from Africa to Asia, largely disseminated "also in many other regions influenced by Islam". Of medieval origin, it widely circulated and in may cases evolved in shape and number of strings. The robab is considered the national instrument in Afghanistan. Cordophone. Ref. Alastair Dick, Jack Percival Baker Dobbs, Christian Poch "Rabab" In The New Grove of Musical Instruments (1984).


Rongo

Sudanese log xylophone with usually with "long gourds serving as resonators". Played by Ndogo people from the south of Sudan. Idiophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 30, 2011).


Santur

Iranian zither with a "shallow, regular trapezoidal box". The resonator is caracterized by "several sound posts inside the box, and two small rosettes on the top panel which help to amplify the sound". It has 72 strings grouped in four, closely spaced, each supported by a small, movable, wooden bridge and tuned to the same pitch. "The bridges are positioned to give the instrument a range of three octaves." Chordophone. Ref. file:///iranian_music_instruments.php.html


Shagal or biro

Somali metal hoe-blades concussion idiophones used in pair to beat rhythms. Idiophone. Ref. John William Johnson. "Somalia." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 14, 2011).


Shanbal

Somali wood hand-carved concussion idiophones used in pair to beat rhythms. Idiophone. Ref. John William Johnson. "Somalia." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 14, 2011).


Shareero

Somali cordophone. Cordophone. Ref. John William Johnson. "Somalia." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 14, 2011).


Shatam

Sudanese small drum particular of Nubian people. Membranophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 14, 2011).


Siinbaar

Somali flute. Aerophone. Ref. John William Johnson. "Somalia." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 14, 2011).


Sumari

Somali flute. Aerophone. Ref. John William Johnson. "Somalia." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 14, 2011).


Sijan

Middle Eastern small cymbals played in the fijiri, a pearl-diver music tradition that was common in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia until the 1930s. Idiophone. Ref. Lisa A. Urkevich "Saudi Arabia" In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online (accessed April 5, 2011).


Simsimiyya, semsemiyya, sumsumiyya

Arab five strings lyre with a box or bowl shaped soundbox. Found in Egypt, Saudi Arabia_s Red Sea coast and South Yemen (six strings). The South Yemenite has a circular soundbox, the Saudi Arabian mantain the rectangular traditional shape in popular usage when it is made by a petrol can one. In Egypt both the shapes are used. Simsimiyya represents a "compromise between the Ethiopian beganna and the tanbura" borrowinf features from both the intruments. The tuning is based on a pentatonic scale. Cordophone. Ref. Lisa A. Urkevich "Saudi Arabia" In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online (accessed April 5, 2011).


Surnay

Asian oboe disseminated in various countries from Middle East, South Asia. In Kashmir it features a "wooden pipe about 46 cm long with a conical bore and an integral bell", performed in the folk opera tradition in ensemble with drums like dhol and nagara.Ref. Alastair Dick "Surnay" In The New Grove of Musical Instruments (1984). / Lisa A. Urkevich "Saudi Arabia" In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online (accessed April 5, 2011).


Taar

Sudanese frame drum particular of Nubian people. Membranophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 14, 2011).


Tanaka

Middle East idiophone "made of a petrol can or large date tin, often filled with pebbles and played by hand or with beaters". Idiophone. Ref. Lisa A. Urkevich "Saudi Arabia" In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online (accessed April 5, 2011).


Tabir

Middle Eastern goblet-shaped drum. Membranophone. Ref. Lisa A. Urkevich "Saudi Arabia" In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online (accessed April 5, 2011).


1. Tar (1), pl. Tiran

Muslim circular skin covered frame drum, the diameter may vary from 12 to 70 cm. The larger is generally associated to worship, the smollest "is an instrument of the conoisseur" and a medium one is used for a "semi-sacred and semi-profane repertory (marriage, circumcision)". Largely disseminated in Africa it also circulates in countries surrounding the Indian Ocean, like Kenia, Uganda, Zanzibar, Comores, Maldives and in Malaysia. In this lasts it is mostly known under different names, like matari (Kenya), matali (Uganda), tari (Zanzibar and Comores), tar (Malaysia), thaara (Maldives). The terms in South Arabic language means 'frame drum' and 'round object'. The only exception is for the Maldivian thaara that sometimes can be octagonal. In some cases (Morocco and Gulf area) the drum has metal rings or small bells dangling from inside the wooden frame, similar to the daira (see). Helded perpendicular (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia) or paraller to the body (Egypt, Near Est), tar is payed alone, in pairs, in groups or in ensembles with other intruments. Also called duff. Membranophone. Ref. Christian Poch "Tar" In The New Grove of Musical Instruments (1984).


Tar (2)

Middle Eastern plucked lute disseminated in Iranian, Caucasus and Central Asia. Used in "popular urban entertainment is "associated more with art music". Made of a mulberry wood, the body is shaped like a figure 8, with a lambskin membrane, a long neck fingerboards having 25 adjustible gut frets dividing the octave into 15 microtones. The strings are grouped in three courses, strucked with a plectrum. The Caucasian model has a "shallower, less curved body", wider neck and bridge and usually 22 frets. The tar is larger than the similar Persian setar. Chordophone. Ref. Jean During "Tar" In The New Grove of Musical Instruments (1984).


Tazammart

African flute traditionally made of reed, today also of metal. Played in isolation by Touareg shepherd on nostalgic or amorous themes. It is used in many Sahara Desert countries like Libya, Algeria and Nigeria. Aerophone. Ref. Brandily, Monique. "Libya." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 11, 2011).


Tindé

Libyan large mortar drum particular to the Tuareg, played by women who sing and accompany themselves in various non religious-occasions. Membranophone. Ref. Brandily, Monique. "Libya." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 11, 2011).


Tom

Sudanese lyre with five plucked strings played by a poet-composer-singer to accompany ritual songs in honour of Nyikang, the first king of the Shilluk people or in praise of "one of the historically proved kings". Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 29, 2011).


Tumble

Sudanese bowl-shaped drum used in a small instrumental ensemble called kolokua, played at harvesting and circumcision festivities. The tumble name "indicates relations with Chad and northern Nigeria". Membranophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 16, 2011).


Umkiki

Sudanese one-string fiddle particular of the Bagg?ra people, played by a singer to accompany a typical "praise or satirical songs or songs of censure called gardagi". While the string gives only one tone, the player, in sudanese al-hadday, is able to produce extra notes by pushing the string on the neck in different positions. The umkiki could be replaced by a harp with five strings, called kurbi or al-bakurbo. Cordophone. Ref. A. Al-Daw, A.-A. Mohammed and A.-S.H. Ibrahim: Traditional Musical Instruments in Sudan (Khartoum, 1985) (Arabic and Eng.) / Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 15, 2011).


Tonbak, dombak

See Zarb.


Setar

Iranian long-necked four strings lute with a pear shaped soundbox. The frets are movable, made by animal gut laces. As for the indian sitar, the strings are plucked only with the right index. In farsi language the terms means _three strings_ (se_-tar). A forth string was added doubling the third at the beginning of the last century in order to obtain a sound more rich of armonics. The setar is ligh with a delicate bright sonority. Chordophone. Ref. Bo Lawergren, et al. "Iran" In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online (accessed April 7, 2011)


Umva

Sudanese "cylindrical dance drum with two skins" particular of Nuba mountains area people. It takes different names depending on the people: it is called umva among Miri; bamba among Masakin and bajé among Tumtum. Membranophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 16, 2011).


Waza

Sudanese cone-shaped trumpet played in ensemble of 10-12 instruments, considered "the most distinguished instrumental music of the Berta". The length of the waza vary from 50 to 180 cm and it is held with both the hands, the right hand helding the horn. A basic beats made by percussion wooden crotches sticks beaten with a cowhorn accompany the trumpets. The basic pulse is also provided by leg rattles weared by some women participating as group singers and dancers. The chief of the waza ensemble is called wazalu. Today the waza ensembles play in common public events and family festivities. Aerophone. Ref. Artur Simon. "Sudan." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 29, 2011). / Joseph S. Kaminski Asante ivory trumpets in Ghana: traditions, repertoires, histories, metaphysics, (PhD diss., Kent State University, 2006)


Yoome

Somali drum. Membranophone. Ref. John William Johnson. "Somalia." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 14, 2011).


Zokra

Libyan bagpipe with two long melodic pipes fixed together in parallel made of reed or brass. The bag is made of kidskin with the feet tied. Similar to Magruna, the entire zokra's repertoire can be played on magruna but not the reverse as Magruna has one finger-hole more. Aerophone. Ref. Brandily, Monique. "Libya." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed March 11, 2011).


Zarb

Iranian goblet wooden drum, "held horizontally on the lap and played with the fingers of both hands". Also called tombak or dombak. The term means _beat_. Membranophone. Racy, Ali Jihad: A Dialectical Perspective on Musical Instruments: the East-Mediterranean mijwiz, _Ethnomusicology_, Vol. 38, No. 1 ( 1994), pp. 37-57 / Bo Lawergren, et al. "Iran" In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online (accessed April 7, 2011)


Zummarah

Middle-eastern double-pipe. Aerophone. Racy, Ali Jihad "A Dialectical Perspective on Musical Instruments: the East-Mediterranean Mijwiz", _Ethnomusicology_, Vol. 38, No. 1 (1994), pp. 37-57